MONDAY, April 1, 2024 (HealthDay News) — Vaccine protection against mpox fades quickly in the human immune system, even in people who’ve received the full two-dose regimen, a new real-world study shows.

Antibody levels fell to low or near zero within the first few months of getting the vaccine, unless the person had previously received a smallpox vaccine, scientists reported Saturday at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Barcelona.

In the study, less than half of men without prior smallpox vaccination had any detectible antibodies to mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) 28 days after getting their second jab, the findings showed.

“The results presented here indicate that long-term protective immunity might need a booster dose for its maintenance,” said researcher Dr. Klara Sonden, deputy state epidemiologist for the Public Health Agency of Sweden.

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